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Agricultural sciences (incl. all fields) 

Non-University Higher Education (College sector)  

Higher education in Agricultural Sciences and related fields at college level is offered at a number of different state colleges. However, admission requirements, the general structure of the courses, degrees offered, etc. are more or less the same in all fields. Thus, they will be dealt with collectively in the following chapter. An overview of the courses given by the various institutions is listed at the end. 

Admission requirements 

To gain access to a state college, an applicant has to have general study competence. This requirement is satisfied by : 

    a) successful completion of the 3-year upper secondary school, or 
    b) completed vocational training, upper secondary level, or 
    c) for applicants over 23 years of age: minimum working experience of 5 years. 
In addition, there are minimum requirements for all three mentioned groups regarding a number of courses that need to be completed at upper secondary school level (in Norwegian, English, Social Sciences, Mathematics and Natural Sciences). 

Length and structure of courses 
Course length may vary between 1 and 4 years. To be granted a degree from a state college, a minimum of 2 years full-time study is required. The majority of the courses offered within agriculture are 3-year programmes. 
In Norway, courses are measured in vekttall or vekter (credits). The normal workload for one semester is 10 credits, equivalent to 30 ECTS Credits. 
Course structure may vary somewhat, some colleges offering a semester based program with relatively many, small courses; whereas others programs consist of larger units of up to 20 credits. In general, students must follow a certain core curriculum, but have the possibility to freely chose a number of courses in addition. 

Practical training 
Practical training is not an integrated part of the courses offered at the state colleges. 

Contributory research work 
Students completing the 2, 3 and 4-year courses have to submit a final paper (extended term paper), which in general does not include participation in independent research work. 

European dimension (including linguistic policy) 
All courses at the state colleges are taught in Norwegian. However, the newly reorganized colleges have all established International Student Offices, and some are already participating in the Erasmus/Socrates and the Nordplus (Nordic countries) exchange programs. 

Grade, title of diploma/degree 
Two degrees are awarded by the state colleges: 
2-year (40 credits) and 3-year courses (60 credits): Høgskolekandidat ("College Candidate"). 
4-year programs (80 credits): Candidatus/Candidata Magisterii (Cand. Mag.) 

Further study: 
- Specialized courses: Some colleges offer 1 year specialization courses after completion of the 3-year høgskolekandidat program. The students can then be awarded the Cand. Mag. degree. 
After completion of 3 years at a state college it is also possible to apply for postgraduate study at the Agricultural University of Norway (se 2.2). 
- Ph.D. courses are normally not offered at the state colleges. However, a few Colleges cooperate with other (often foreign) institutions in order to enable their students to pursue Ph.D. studies. 

Employment market 
Many of the 3-year courses have just been started within the past few years. It is therefore difficult to give any detailed account of the aspects of employment for graduates from these courses. In general, College graduates often meet difficulties in times of general recession, due to competition from University-level graduates. 

Addresses of institutions 
All state colleges (Høgskoler) offering 2 and 3-year courses within Agricultural Science and related fields are listed below, with a short reference to the programs offered. 

    Høgskolen i Agder 
    Tordenskjoldsgt. 65 
    N - 4604 Kristiansand S 
    Tel: +47 38 07 95 00 
    Fax: +47 38 97 95 01 

    Courses offered in: Horticulture, Landscape Architecture 

    Høgskolen i Bergen 
    Lars Hillesgt. 34 
    N - 5008 Bergen 
    Tel: +47 55 57 35 00 
    Fax: +47 55 32 64 07 

    Courses offered in:  Land Use Planning 

    Høgskolen i Bodø 
    N - 8002 Bodø 
    Tel: +47 75 51 72 00 
    Fax: +47 75 51 74 57 

    Courses offered in: Aquaculture, Fisheries 

    Høgskolen i Finnmark 
    Follumsvei 
    N - 9500 Alta 
    Tel: +47 78 43 76 00 
    Fax: +47 78 43 44 38 

    Courses offered in: Aquaculture, Rural Tourism & Leisure 

    Høgskolen i Gjøvik 
    Teknologivn. 22 
    N - 2800 Gjøvik 
    Tel: +47 61 17 35 48 
    Fax: +47 61 17 06 07 

    Courses offered in: Land Use Planning & Surveying, Forestry 

    Høgskolen i Harstad 
    P.O. Box 2130 Kanebogen 
    N - 9401 Harstad 
    Tel: +47 77 07 02 33 
    Fax: +47 77 07 43 05 

    Courses offered in: Rural Tourism & Leisure 

    Høgskolen i Hedmark  
    N - 2400 Elverum 
    Tel: +47 62 42 99 00 
    Fax: +47 62 59 59 42 

    Courses offered in: Agricultural Science & Engineering, Forestry, Environmental Studies 

    Høgskolen i Lillehammer 
    P.O. Box 1004 Skurva 
    N - 2601 Lillehammer 
    Tel: +47 61 28 80 00 
    Fax: +47 61 26 07 50 

    Courses offered in: Rural Tourism & Leisure 

    Høgskolen i Nord-Trøndelag 
    P.O. Box 169 
    N - 7701 Steinkjer 
    Tel: +47 74 16 27 22 
    Fax: +47 74 16 24 75 

    Courses offered in: Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Rural Tourism & Leisure 

    Høgskolen i Sogn og Fjordane 
    P.O. Box 133 
    N - 5801 Sogndal 
    Tel: +47 57 67 60 00 
    Fax: +47 57 67 61 00 

    Courses offered in: Landscape Architecture, Aquaculture 

    Høgskolen i Stavanger 
    P.O. Box 2557 Ullandhaug 
    N - 4004 Stavanger 
    Tel: +47 51 88 75 70 
    Fax: +47 51 88 75 74 

    Courses offered in: Aquaculture 

    Høgskolen i Sør-Trøndelag 
    N - 7005 Trondheim 
    Tel: +47 73 93 04 00 
    Fax: +47 73 93 05 00 

    Courses offered in: Food Science & Technology 

    Høgskolen i Telemark 
    Kjølnesring 56 
    N - 3914 Porsgrunn 
    Tel: +47 35 57 50 00 
    Fax: +47 35 57 50 01 

    Courses offered in: Agricultural Science, Environmental Studies 

    Høgskolen i Tromsø 
    N - 9005 Tromsø 
    Tel: +47 77 65 54 66 
    Fax: +47 77 68 99 56 

    Courses offered in: Food Science & Technology, Fisheries 

    Høgskolen i Ålesund 
    Fogd Greves vei 9 
    N - 6009 Ålesund 
    Tel: +47 70 13 74 30 
    Fax: +47 70 13 74 48 

    Courses offered in: Fisheries 

Addresses of former students' associations 
Students as well as graduates from all areas of Agriculture, Forestry, Food Science, Environmental Science, etc. can become members of: 
    Norsk Naturforvalterforbund  
    P.O. Box 7051 Homansbyen 
    N - 0306 Oslo 
    Tel: +47 22 44 78 77 
    Fax: +47 22 55 16 30 


University  

The Agricultural University of Norway (Norges landbrukshøgskole, NLH) is the only instituition offering university level education within agriculture and related fields in Norway. Concerning Fisheries, one must distinguish between Aquaculture (fish farming) and Fishery (Marine) Science. Whereas the former is taught at NLH, the latter is not. 

Admission requirements 
In order to gain admission to the Agricultural University of Norway applicants must have passed the prescribed final examinations of the Norwegian upper secondary school (formerly examen artium), or have other approved qualifications. Furthermore, applicants must meet NLH's additional requirements to secondary school level courses in the natural sciences. These requirements vary for the different study options offered at NLH. The number of students admitted to the Agricultural University of Norway is limited. 
A limited number of international students are admitted to NLH. Foreign applicants are evaluated individually, and to be considered for admission, must fulfill the minimum entrance requirements consisting of: 

  • Basic matriculation requirements; 
  • Proof of Norwegian language skills (minimum 450 points in the "Bergenstest"). 
For admission to the M. Sc. programme in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture a B. Sc. or an equivalent degree is required. Most of the openings on this programme are however reserved for students from Africa and Asia. 
In addition, guest students are accepted at all levels of study for periods of up to one year. Language tests are not required for guest students, though basic knowledge of a Scandinavian language is strongly recommended. 

Length and structure of courses 
Students apply directly to one of the12 study options offered: 

  • Animal Science, incl. Aquaculture (Fish Farming) 
  • Cartography 
  • Economics & Resource Management 
  • Food Science 
  • Forestry 
  • Horticulture 
  • Land-Use Planning 
  • Landscape Architecture 
  • Natural Science 
  • Nature Conservation and Management 
  • Soil and Crop Science 
  • Technical Science 
Two degree levels are offered: the lower degree can be issued to students fulfilling certain requirements after 3 1/2 years of study. The majority of students, however, continue for one of the higher degrees, which requires a minimum of 5 years of full-time study (100 credits). 
The structure of the courses varies from one study option to another, but the general scheme for the 5-year course can be described as: 
First & second year: general, basic-level courses. 
Third & fourth year: specialization within chosen field of study. 
Fifth year: graduate-level courses and thesis work. 
Most of the study options are quite regulated, where compulsory courses represent 80-90 of the 100 credits required. 

Practical training 
Students must have completed at least 12 weeks of relevant practical training before starting their final semester. 

Contributory research work 
Students complete their studies at NLH by writing a "hovedoppgave" (thesis in major subject), which normally includes some independent research work in addition to litterature study. The final semester (10 credits) is reserved entirely for thesis work. The study option Natural Science requires a final thesis of 20 credits, i.e. one year full-time work. 

European dimension (including linguistic policy) 
There exist a number of (formal and informal) links with European institutions offering a similar education. Students are encouraged to spend 1 or 2 semesters abroad, either within the Erasmus or the Nordplus programmes. Furthermore, there are efforts to coordinate the syllabus of the various institutions offering agricultural education in the Nordic countries ("Nordic Agricultural University"). 
At present, languages are not taught at NLH. However, there are plans to introduce introductory courses in Norwegian for exchange students, visiting researchers, etc. All Norwegian students have good knowledge of the English language, and in many cases a second European language in addition. Even though most lectures are in Norwegian, an increasing amount of courses are held in English, due to the growing population of researchers from abroad at NLH. In certain subject areas, a substantial part of the textbooks are in English. 

Grade, title of diploma/degree 
Lower degree 
The degree Candidata/Candidatus Magisterii (Cand. Mag.) is a first level degree awarded to students in all 12 study options. The Cand. Mag. degree requires the completion of a minimum of 70 credits. The 70 credits must include a 20 credit specialization in one field, in addition to the obligatory 2 credit course in "History of Philosophy and Science". 

Higher degrees 
The degrees Candidata/Candidatus Agriculturae (Cand. Agric.), Sivilingeniør (Siv. Ing.) and Candidata/Candidatus Scientiarum (Cand. Scient.) are awarded to students successfully completing the 5-year programme. All three degrees are considered equivalent to the degree M.Sc. 
The Cand. Agric. degree is awarded to students in the study options Horticulture, Animal Science, Soil and Crop Science, Landscape Architecture, Land-Use Planning, Nature Conservation and Management, Food Science, Forestry, and Economics & Resource Management. 
The Siv. Ing. degree is awarded to students in the study options Cartography and Technical Science. 
The Cand. Scient. degree is awarded to students in the study option Natural Science. 
Students graduating from the programme in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture are awarded a Master of Science degree. 

Further study 
Continuing Education 
The Center for Continuing Education (Senter for Etter- og Videreutdanning, SEVU) is a branch of the University administration, offering a wide range of courses and seminars on specialized topics within all aspects of Agricultural Science. At request, courses can be held in all parts of the country. 
Professional training 
To be eligible for teaching positions in secondary and post-secondary eduction, NLH graduates have to follow a one-year pedogogical seminar. 
Ph.D. courses 
The Agricultural University of Norway awards two degrees at the doctorate level: Dr. Scient. and Dr. Agric. The Dr. Scient. programme lasts four years, and includes a number of courses in addition to research work and the actual thesis. Only students with a research grant can apply for the Dr. Scient. programme. Grants are issued by the Norwegian Research Council (NFR), and only a limited number are availible yearly. Dr. Scient "students" are considered to be employees at the various institutes more than they are seen upon as students. 
The Dr. Agric. degree is a higher doctoral degree, awarded to researchers purely on the basis of outstanding research results. 

Employment market 
Traditionally, NLH graduates have had no problems finding employment. One reason being that the number of students has been limited, and thus could be adapted to the current demands of the employment market. In addition, NLH graduates are known for their broad educational background, and are thereful able to fill a wide spectrum of different tasks. 
Recent studies have shown that approximately 60-65 % of NLH graduates are employed in the public sector, including state and county administration, teaching (secondary school, college, university) and research. A number of graduates also work in private firms, become self-employed, run farms (often in combination with other employment) or work in development related projects. 

Addresses of institution 

    Agricultural University of Norway (NLH) 
    Administration 
    Postboks 5003 
    1432 Aas 
    Norway 

    Tel: +47 - 64 94 75 00 
    Fax: +47 - 64 94 75 05 

Addresses of former students' associations 
Students as well as graduates from all areas of Agriculture, Forestry, Food Science, Environmental Science, etc. can become members of: 
    Norsk Naturforvalterforbund  
    P.O. Box 7051 Homansbyen 
    N - 0306 Oslo 
    Tel: +47 22 44 78 77 
    Fax: +47 22 55 16 30 
Graduates from technically oriented subjects (Cartography, Agricultural Engineering) often become members of: 
    Norske Sivilingeniørers Forening  
    P.O. Box 2312 Solli 
    N - 0201 Oslo 
    Tel: +47 22 94 75 00 
    Fax: +47 22 94 75 01 

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